The Basic Difference between

Nichiren Buddhism and Other Schools of Buddhism

Buddhism is generally classified into two main branches: Theravada and Mahayana. The name “Theravada” - or the “Teachings of the Elders” - is based on the early teachings of the Pali CanonThe goal of Theravada teachings is to lead practitioner to become an Arhat (or sage, who can escape the cycle of rebirth).

The other branch is Mahayana (Great Vehicle for attaining Enlightenment).  Mahayana Buddhism shares similar beliefs with Theravada, but differs by introducing the concept of “Bodhisattva” - a stage of practice, which leads to becoming a Buddha.  The ‘possibility to attain Buddhahood through Bodhisattva way’ - is considered to be the central difference between the two branches.  (Some Theravada schools adapt now the concept of Bodhisattva - but their main focus is on becoming a sage or Arhat).

Mahayana teachings regard the cycle of birth and death as eternal and inescapable.  Hence, the concept of ending “the cycle of birth and death” is understood as ending the cycle of continual rebirth in misery and suffering, through creating the good karma of the Bodhisattva practice.  In this way, practitioner of Mahayana can gradually come close to attaining Buddhahood (through practicing the Bodhisattva way).  In other words, the aim of practice in Mahayana is to transform one’s life of sufferings into a life of enlightenment through basically helping others do the same. 

Examples of Mahayana schools of Buddhism are: Tibetan, Zen, Amida, and Nichiren Buddhism, each suggesting a different perspective on how to attain enlightenment:

  1. -     Amida Buddhism teaches about Buddhahood in a Pure Land, after death.

  2. -    Tibetan (Vajrayana) Buddhism incorporates Mahayana teachings with esoteric rituals of

      pre-Buddhist “Bon” tradition - to aid in the process of awakening.

  1. -    Zen aims for cultivation of insight through silent meditation, but with no emphasis     

     on setting a goal to become a Buddha. 

  1. -    Nichiren Buddhism is about the attainment of Buddhahood in the reality of daily life.

The reason for the diversity of Buddhist schools lies in the diversity of the sutras they follow, and which differ markedly in their depth and capacity to lead people to enlightenment.  Having a wealth of various Mahayana teachings, scholars of Buddhism were faced with the following question:

               How to compare and classify the diverse teachings of the Buddha?

After studying and comparing the teachings of various sutras, Buddhist scholar Chih-i, known also as Tien-tai (538 - 597) established criteria to classify the depth and capacity of sutras, arriving to the conclusion that the Lotus Sutra - preached at the last period of the Buddha’s life - is the complete and final teaching of Buddhism. 

The Lotus Sutra opens the way for all people to attain Buddhahood in their present body and their current circumstances.  In essence, the Lotus Sutra harmonises and integrates all the previous teachings of the Buddha (both Theravada and Mahayana) and reveals the final Dharma (or the Universal Law of Life).

Because the Lotus Sutra is unique among the Mahayana sutras, it stands as a class of its own.  This means that it is possible to consider Lotus Buddhism as a branch of its own in the general classification of Buddhism:  Theravada, Mahayana and Lotus Buddhism.

Nichiren’s Classification of Buddhism: for hundreds of years, the Lotus Sutra was considered as a profound theory, but difficult to put into practice.  Then, a Mahayana reformer, Nichiren (1222 - 1282) - dedicated to revive the Sutra’s teachings, established a practical way for its practice, and ranked it as the complete and final teaching of Buddhism.

According to Nichiren, the highest teaching of Buddhism is that, which has the capacity to help all people in this lifetime, without distinctions:

        “In Buddhism, that teaching is judged supreme that enables all people, whether good or evil,

         to become Buddhas. Surely anyone can grasp so reasonable a standard. By means of this

        principle, we can compare the various sutras and ascertain which is superior”. WND1 p 156  

The Lotus Sutra abolishes all categories of discrimination among people, opening the path of enlightenment for all individuals, in their present form and circumstances, while sutras preached before the Lotus include some limitations on attaining Buddhahood.

In essence, the logic behind Nichiren’s criterion for comparing various sutras was simply based on how truly applicable a given teaching is - regardless of practitioner’s gender, sexual orientation, intellect , social position or karmic inheritance - to attain enlightenment in one’s present lifetime.  

Accordingly, Nichiren regarded all sutras prior to the Lotus Sutra as provisional or preparatory teachings - and the Lotus Sutra as final and complete.  Based on this perspective, he classified the totality of Buddhism into two categories:

-    Pre-Lotus Sutra teachings (of Theravada and Mahayana) and,

-    Lotus Sutra’s teachings - the final teaching of Buddhism.

This classification of Buddhism (based on the two categories of provisional and final) does not conflict with the teachings of traditional schools of Buddhism: Theravada and Mahayana streams alike.  All schools of Traditional Buddhism (Pre-Lotus teachings) acknowledge that their current teachings are not final, because Shakyamuni’s sutras (other than the Lotus) predict their own decline in the current age (the Latter Day of the Law) - leading to the complete disappearance of these Buddhist teachings  : The Dhamma will eventually disappear”.  This is a common belief in Traditional Buddhism.  On the contrary, Lotus Buddhism predicts the flourishing of its teachings for all people and in this current age and future time to come.

Lotus Buddhism as the valid teaching for the Current Age:

Traditional Buddhism’s belief about ‘the Latter Day of the Law’ describes this period of time as the period of “decline and disappearance of Buddhism in the world” .  This means that the schools of Buddhism - based on pre-Lotus Sutra teachings – are in agreement with Nichiren Buddhism that their teachings (which were preached before the Lotus Sutra) are provisional or not final.  While all pre-Lotus (or provisional) teachings predict the decline of Buddhism in the Latter Day, the Lotus Sutra alone predicts the flourishing of Buddhism and a wide spread of its teachings all over the world: “...the great pure Law of the Lotus Sutra will spread far and wide throughout [the whole world].” WND1 p 550

The problematic belief in the decline and disappearance of Buddhism promoted for an aspiration (within Traditional Buddhism) for the emergence of a “Future Buddha”. The purpose of this mythology about a ‘Future Buddha’ is to give birth anew to the lost Dharma.  In contrast, the Lotus Sutra predicts the flourishing of its teachings, and continual spread of its concept of the Dharma (the Universal Law of Cause and Effect).  Future Buddhas - according to the Lotus Sutra - are ordinary people who practice its teachings (called also the Bodhisattvas of the Earth).

Not only Traditional Buddhism predicts decline of its teachings, troubles and sufferings and the arrival of a new Buddha - this myth reminds with similar beliefs such as the arrival of Jesus anew after mass destruction and also the Mahdi arrival in Islamic beliefs. 

Nichiren Buddhism, regards the concept of “Future Buddha” as redundant: because the final Dharma has been already declared in the Lotus Sutra, and there is nothing to add to it.  Each person who embodies the teachings of the Lotus Sutra becomes a future Buddha.  This is part of the revolutionary teachings of the Lotus Sutra.

What is common

between Traditional Buddhism and Nichiren Buddhism

Despite differences, it is equally important to recognise the common goal of all Buddhist schools.  What unifies all Buddhist groups is the goal of attaining the state of enlightenment, as means of achieving inner peace and world peace.

Another uniting belief is that Buddhism cannot be practiced in isolation but through a network of Sangha (the Community of Buddha followers).

Additionally, all Buddhist schools agree on the teaching of the Three Dharma Seals, which are the basic doctrines of “Impermanence”, “Non-Ego” and “Enlightenment”. 

Nichiren teachings share with traditional Buddhism the concept of Dependent Origination and the Three Truths: Sunyata (Emptiness or non-substantiality), Temporary Existence, and the Middle Way.  In addition, the Buddhist doctrines of non-duality, Inseparability (body and mind) and Interconnectedness (self and environment) are also common.

The word ‘Dharma’ is used to describe the teaching of the Buddha about reality of life and attaining enlightenment.  Traditional Buddhism regards the early sermon on the Four Noble Truths as the Dharma, while the Lotus Sutra regards the final teaching of the Buddha as the Dharma (or the Universal Law : Myoho-Renge-Kyo), described in the Lotus sutra as the “most wonderful unsurpassed Law”: Chapter 3.  It also teaches that following this Law, to which Shakyamuni was enlightened, will enable ordinary people attain the same Buddha-state in this lifetime.

A Quick Comparison between Nichiren Buddhism and Traditional Buddhism


Nichiren Buddhism:                                                                   Traditional Buddhism:

The Lotus Sutra                                                                               Pre-Lotus teachings



Chanting the Dharma                                                                   Silent Meditation (in search     

Nam-Myoho-Renge-Kyo,                                                              for the Dharma nature)



Mandala “Gohonzon”, (Life of Buddha)                                    Statue of Shakyamuni,

which embodies the Person and the Law                                 embodying the aspect of Person    



The Ten Worlds are mutually inclusive.                                The Ten Worlds are separate.

(“Bodhisattva-Buddha” is inseparable state)                      (Bodhisattva distinct from Buddha)




Desires assists in enlightenment                                               (Various views on desires)



The Universal Law of the Life                                                       The Four Noble Truths

    Nam-Myoho-Renge-Kyo                                                               & the Eightfold path


Author:  Safwan Darshams


                                        The Revolutionary Teachings of The Lotus Sutra